As an heir, you likely have questions about the inheritance process, and your rights.
Overall, if you are entitled to receive an inheritance, you have the right to expect to receive that inheritance ... eventually. While some states attempt to put deadlines on
estate settlements, an average estate takes 16 months to settle, and some take years
(see Inheritance Timing).
Rights Under Probate
Most estates are settled by an executor appointed by the court (often a family member), under a court-supervised process known as probate.
The executor has significant discretionary power, but he
or she has a fiduciary duty to act in the best interests of the estate, to follow the law, and to distribute estate proceeds to the rightful heirs.
However, estates must satisfy obligations according to priority (for example, debts take precedence over distributions),
so in some cases your inheritance will be less than expected, or even be completely consumed by other
estate priorities (which must generally affect all potential heirs proportionately).
See Estate Expenses, Fees, and Taxes for more information, and note that
for your protection, estate executors must document all estate transactions and make these records available to the courts ...
and in some states, must proactively deliver these records in a Final Accounting to the heirs as well.
Your rights as an heir include:
Notice: Many states have laws that require an estate executor to notify you of the death and the estate proceeding if you are mentioned in the will, if there is no will and you are entitled to inherit by
intestate succession, or even if there is a will that doesn't mention you, but you would have been entitled to inherit by intestate succession
(i.e., you are an "heir-at-law").
Estate Information: Many states require the executor to provide you a copy of the estate inventory,
as well as a Final Accounting (what happened to the inventory, what estate expenses were incurred, etc.).
If the estate is undergoing probate, and the state does not require that the executor directly supply you the information,
you can simply make a public records request for the reports filed with the court.
If you are a surviving spouse or dependent child, you likely have additional rights that go beyond anything mentioned in the will or mandated
by the laws of intestate succession. Surviving family members often have the right to remain living in the family home for a certain period of time,
to automatically receive certain personal possessions, to receive a living allowance from the estate while it is being settled, and to receive certain minimum
amounts (see Family Entitlement details for your state).
Unless the asset is one that automatically transfers on death (such as an IRA with a named beneficiary), you can expect the process to take 12-18 months on average, and sometimes considerably longer
(see Inheritance Timing).
An executor has a duty to settle an estate in a reasonable timeframe, but most states are very lenient about such timeframes, and there are legitimate reasons that some estates take years to settle.
On the other hand, some executor simply cannot handle the task, or unreasonably delay, and those can be grounds to ask the court to remove the executor and appoint someone else.
Court Objections: If the estate undergoes probate (and most do),
you have the right to object to the probate court about anything you think is being done incorrectly or improperly.
You can object to the appointment of a particular executor, you can object to the validity of a will,
you can object to particular distributions (not just your own), you can object to sales of assets,
you can object to how long things are taking ... in fact, you can object to almost anything. You just need to make sure you have valid grounds for doing so,
and it's important to realize that settling an estate is a difficult task that takes time.
See Court to find your particular court.
Lawsuits: If the probate judge does not respond to your objection as desired, or if there is no probate proceeding, then you can file a
civil lawsuit against the estate. Such lawsuits can be expensive, and should be considered only as a last resort.
Expectations: Please keep in mind that although a will may be specific about an intended inheritance, other factors can sometimes intervene to modify or even entirely invalidate the inheritance.
See Rules of Inheritance for details.
Inheritance Taxes: Some states have inheritance taxes for which the executor has the responsibility of paying, out of your share, before giving you your remaining inheritance. If your executor is
using EstateExec, it will tell him or her if such taxes apply.
Unless the inheritance is a specific bequest, the executor may have some discretion in deciding how to give you your share of an estate. The executor may decide to liquidate assets and give you
all cash (and cash equivalents), or the executor may mix and match assets to equal your share. You have to the right to ask for your share to be given in a certain form, but the executor does not
have to respect your wishes. For this reason (and others), it is advisable to try to retain a good relationship with the executor
(see Working with Executors).
Inheritance Receipts: When you receive an inheritance, the executor will likely ask you to sign a receipt, which can be required. However, the executor will often ask you, as a condition of receiving the proceeds,
to waive any rights you may to decide to sue the estate or the executor in the future. Such waivers are best practice for an executor, but heirs are not required to waive their rights, so the decision is up to
you. It may be best to sign anyway, to preserve the relationship and to receive your inheritance in a timely manner, but your ultimate recourse is to either convince the executor to drop the waiver,
or object to the court.
Small Estate Rights
Most states have laws enabling small estates to be settled without full probate, sometimes without any court involvement at all. In such cases, there may be no formally appointed executor,
and the heir can directly collect any inheritance to which he or she is entitled, by providing appropriate documentation to the current asset holders.
Select specific state:
(or click map)
. . .
Finally, note that as an heir, you are NOT responsible for paying the debts of the estate out of your own funds.
You do NOT inherit responsibility for paying the debts of parents, for example.
If the estate is insolvent (i.e., cannot pay all its bills),
then creditors simply end up with less than owed, or even nothing ... as do you.
If an estate ends up being insolvent, and you somehow received a distribution anyway (perhaps through a small estate process),
some states allow creditors to sue you to reclaim any amounts they are still owed.
So you can't inherit a debt outright, but if you receive a distribution that the estate needed to pay its bills, you may be forced to pay out some or all of that distribution.
EstateExec™ Leaves More $ for Heirs!
EstateExec is online software designed to help estate executors fulfill their duties, providing automated guidance, automated financial accounting,
and even the option to work with a lawyer or other interested parties.
As an heir, you can help ensure that your estate follows all the rules to a timely settlement by recommending EstateExec to your executor,
(who often has never done the job before, and could use a little help).
Anyone can get started using EstateExec for free, and pay just a one-time $99 licensing fee (per estate) if it proves useful.
EstateExec will likely save the estate thousands of dollars (in reduced legal and accounting expenses, plus relevant money-saving coupons),
leaving more funds for distributions to heirs.
EstateExec is rated 4.5 stars ()
on TrustPilot reviews.
You may want to share information about EstateExec with your estate executor, or the original estate owner if still in the planning stage.